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红木家具将迎来新的发展机遇和大好时机

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 商铺11年拿不到产权证?蹊跷的建筑规划屡次让业主维权艰难 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

定制家具已进入百货市场 产品充斥整个市场

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

1. How to make pancakes
同行评审指由一个或多个与论文作者业务能力相当的人进行评估,这有助于对研究进行验证。
● “奥巴马签署行政令禁止学校读效忠宣言”
This move works on multiple fronts for the Thunder. First, Gibson helps fill in for the injured Enes Kanter in the short-term and he brings playoff experience, solid rebounding and hard-nosed defense to a possible postseason matchup with the Spurs or Rockets.
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Here's a full rundown of the activity—and inactivity—with an eye towards naming this year's trade deadline winners and losers.

中国拒绝承认存在任何不当行为,并表示正在努力解决工业产能过剩的问题。随着中国经济增长放缓,该问题变得日益尖锐。
However, strong progress across the main rankings does not automatically translate into European success. Sa Business School at the University of Oxford, for example, rose one place in the MBA ranking, five places in the ranking of open executive programmes and broke into the top 10 of the Executive MBA ranking for the first time by moving up 12 places, but its European ranking remains unchanged, at 10th.
每个句子后面有5个数字,选择最能反映你的感受的数字。
公共检察官已决定释放若干人,并将起诉至少五人。
“而在市场上前所未有的是确实有客户在寻找这样的投资。”

Footnotes

  • 大城市将进一步取消落户限制 浙江多地已提前开始行动
  • From Yahoo’s bombshell announcement of a data breach that affected millions, to the recent WannaCry and BadRabbit ransomware attacks, 2017 has brought several major cybersecurity disasters.

1、超级自信。邦德的超级自信让他不仅更加性感,而且工作更出色。与理性和客观相比,多一些自信往往收获更多(自负时人人感觉都不错)。无论男女都不喜欢谦逊的人。邦德有着实干家的品质:作为特种部队成员,他与普通人不同,具有非凡的自信(又称“自欺性提高”),并且情绪更稳定、更富弹性。
posture
The Microsoft founder's net worth is $86 billion, up from $75 billion last year.
虽然仿生腿对截肢者来说是巨大的福音,但是它们与人体缺乏真正的神经联系,导致依靠仿生腿走路十分麻烦和劳累。但是去年,西雅图的居民Zac Vawter 安装了世界上第一支思想控制的腿,一种直接接受从他大脑发出信号的仿生肢体。
The report shows Cases of dishonesty connected to e-commerce platforms and enterprises, logistics companies, third-party payment platforms and consumers in a five-day period from Nov 11 to 15 increased 57.49% compared to last year.
中国银行业监管机构的数据显示,去年中国商业银行的净利润总量增长了2.4%。中小银行的利润增长继续加速,而大型银行的利润增长则放慢了。

京东二环某楼盘半价销售 购房者凌晨5点排队抢房

References

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